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PLoS One. 2007 May 9;2(5):e430.

ATM-mediated transcriptional and developmental responses to gamma-rays in Arabidopsis.

Author information

  • 1CEA, DSV, Institut de Biologie Environnementale et de Biotechnologie (iBEB), Service de biologie végétale et de microbiologie environnementales (SBVME), Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance, France.

Abstract

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) is an essential checkpoint kinase that signals DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotes. Its depletion causes meiotic and somatic defects in Arabidopsis and progressive motor impairment accompanied by several cell deficiencies in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). To obtain a comprehensive view of the ATM pathway in plants, we performed a time-course analysis of seedling responses by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of root development and genome-wide expression profiling of wild-type (WT) and homozygous ATM-deficient mutants challenged with a dose of gamma-rays (IR) that is sublethal for WT plants. Early morphologic defects in meristematic stem cells indicated that AtATM, an Arabidopsis homolog of the human ATM gene, is essential for maintaining the quiescent center and controlling the differentiation of initial cells after exposure to IR. Results of several microarray experiments performed with whole seedlings and roots up to 5 h post-IR were compiled in a single table, which was used to import gene information and extract gene sets. Sequence and function homology searches; import of spatio-temporal, cell cycling, and mutant-constitutive expression characteristics; and a simplified functional classification system were used to identify novel genes in all functional classes. The hundreds of radiomodulated genes identified were not a random collection, but belonged to functional pathways such as those of the cell cycle; cell death and repair; DNA replication, repair, and recombination; and transcription; translation; and signaling, indicating the strong cell reprogramming and double-strand break abrogation functions of ATM checkpoints. Accordingly, genes in all functional classes were either down or up-regulated concomitantly with downregulation of chromatin deacetylases or upregulation of acetylases and methylases, respectively. Determining the early transcriptional indicators of prolonged S-G2 phases that coincided with cell proliferation delay, or an anticipated subsequent auxin increase, accelerated cell differentiation or death, was used to link IR-regulated hallmark functions and tissue phenotypes after IR. The transcription burst was almost exclusively AtATM-dependent or weakly AtATR-dependent, and followed two major trends of expression in atm: (i)-loss or severe attenuation and delay, and (ii)-inverse and/or stochastic, as well as specific, enabling one to distinguish IR/ATM pathway constituents. Our data provide a large resource for studies on the interaction between plant checkpoints of the cell cycle, development, hormone response, and DNA repair functions, because IR-induced transcriptional changes partially overlap with the response to environmental stress. Putative connections of ATM to stem cell maintenance pathways after IR are also discussed.

PMID:
17487278
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1855986
Free PMC Article

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