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J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(13):4587-96. Epub 2007 May 4.

Delineation of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium HilA regulon through genome-wide location and transcript analysis.

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  • 1Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.


The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium HilA protein is the key regulator for the invasion of epithelial cells. By a combination of genome-wide location and transcript analysis, the HilA-dependent regulon has been delineated. Under invasion-inducing conditions, HilA binds to most of the known target genes and a number of new target genes. The sopB, sopE, and sopA genes, encoding effector proteins secreted by the type III secretion system on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), were identified as being both bound by HilA and differentially regulated in an HilA mutant. This suggests a cooperative role for HilA and InvF in the regulation of SPI-1-secreted effectors. Also, siiA, the first gene of SPI-4, is both bound by HilA and differentially regulated in an HilA mutant, thus linking this pathogenicity island to the invasion key regulator. Finally, the interactions of HilA with the SPI-2 secretion system gene ssaH and the flagellar gene flhD imply a repressor function for HilA under invasion-inducing conditions.

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