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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jun;18(6):1928-35. Epub 2007 May 2.

A population-based, prospective study of blood pressure and risk for end-stage renal disease in China.

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  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.


The association between BP and risk for ESRD has not been well characterized in Asian populations. This study examined the relationship between level of BP and incidence of ESRD in a prospective cohort study of 158,365 Chinese men and women who were 40 yr and older. Measurement of BP and covariables were made in 1991 following a standard protocol. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in 1999 to 2000 and included interviewing participants or proxies and obtaining medical records and death certificates for ESRD cases. During 1,236,422 person-years of follow-up, 380 participants initiated renal replacement therapy or died from renal failure (30.7 cases per 100,000 person-years). Compared with those with normal BP, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all-cause ESRD for prehypertension and stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension were 1.30 (0.98 to 1.74), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.06), and 2.60 (1.89 to 3.57), respectively (P < 0.001 for trend). The corresponding hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of glomerulonephritis-related ESRD were 1.32 (0.82 to 2.11), 1.48 (0.83 to 2.61), and 3.40 (2.02 to 5.74), respectively (P <0.001 for trend). Systolic BP was a stronger predictor of ESRD than diastolic BP or pulse pressure. This study provides novel data on the incidence of ESRD and on the association between BP and glomerulonephritis-related ESRD from a nationally representative sample of adults in China. These results document the importance of high BP as a modifiable risk factor for ESRD in China. Strategies to prevent ESRD should incorporate the prevention, treatment, and control of BP.

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