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Regen Med. 2006 Jul;1(4):563-74.

Tendon and ligament engineering: from cell biology to in vivo application.

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  • 1Signalling and Gene Regulation, German Research Centre for Biotechnology (GBF), Mascheroder Weg 1, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.


Tendons and ligaments are related connective tissues that join muscle to bone and bone to bone, respectively. Tendon and ligament injuries are widely distributed clinical problems in society and while healing of such disorders can occur, the original biological properties of the tissue do not return to normal. In this review, recent work on tendon and ligament development and the use of growth factors for successful cellular therapy of tendon and ligament disorders are discussed. In addition, anti-inflammatory concepts for the treatment of tendon and ligament injuries and recent developments in stem cell engineering for tendon and ligament tissues are examined. Lastly, gene transfer strategies for therapeutic applications to heal tendon and ligament disorders are reviewed.

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