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Am J Health Promot. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(4 Suppl):326-34.

The urban built environment and obesity in New York City: a multilevel analysis.

Author information

  • 1Mailman School of Public Health, 722 West 168th Street, Room 730, New York, NY 10032, USA. Agr3@columbia.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To examine whether urban form is associated with body size within a densely-settled city.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional analysis using multilevel modeling to relate body mass index (BMI) to built environment resources.

SETTING:

Census tracts (n = 1989) within the five boroughs of New York City.

SUBJECTS:

Adult volunteers (n = 13,102) from the five boroughs of New York City recruited between January 2000 and December 2002.

MEASURES:

The dependent variable was objectively-measured BMI. Independent variables included land use mix; bus and subway stop density; population density; and intersection density. Covariates included age, gender, race, education, and census tract-level poverty and race/ethnicity.

ANALYSIS:

Cross-sectional multilevel analyses.

RESULTS:

Mixed land use (Beta = -.55, p < .01), density of bus stops (Beta = -.01, p < .01) and subway stops (Beta = -.06, p < .01), and population density (Beta = -.25, p < .001), but not intersection density (Beta = -. 002) were significantly inversely associated with BMI after adjustmentfor individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic characteristics. Comparing the 90th to the 10th percentile of each built environment variable, the predicted adjusted difference in BMI with increased mixed land use was -. 41 units, with bus stop density was -.33 units, with subway stop density was -.34 units, and with population density was -.86 units.

CONCLUSION:

BMI is associated with built environment characteristics in New York City.

PMID:
17465178
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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