Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ann Neurol. 2007 Apr;61(4):352-62.

Hematoma resolution as a target for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment: role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in microglia/macrophages.

Author information

  • 1Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.



Phagocytosis is necessary to eliminate the hematoma after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, release of proinflammatory mediators and free radicals during phagocyte activation is toxic to neighboring cells, leading to secondary brain injury. Promotion of phagocytosis in a timely and efficient manner may limit the toxic effects of persistent blood products on surrounding tissue and may be important for recovery after ICH.


Intrastriatal blood injection in rodents and primary microglia in culture exposed to red blood cells were used to model ICH and to study mechanisms of hematoma resolution and phagocytosis regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in microglia/macrophages.


Our study demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist, rosiglitazone, promoted hematoma resolution, decreased neuronal damage, and improved functional recovery in a mouse ICH model. Microglia isolated from murine brains showed more efficient phagocytosis in response to PPARgamma activators. PPARgamma activators significantly increased PPARgamma-regulated gene (catalase and CD36) expression, whereas reducing proinflammatory gene (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression, extracellular H(2)O(2) level, and neuronal damage. Phagocytosis by microglia was significantly inhibited by PPARgamma gene knockdown or neutralizing anti-CD36 antibody, whereas it was enhanced by exogenous catalase.


PPARgamma in macrophages acts as an important factor in promoting hematoma absorption and protecting other brain cells from ICH-induced damage.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk