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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 1;104(18):7367-72. Epub 2007 Apr 23.

European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals.

Author information

  • Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 1114, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 653130, USA. trinkaus@wustl.edu

Abstract

A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than approximately 33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data.

PMID:
17452632
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1863481
Free PMC Article

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