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J Atten Disord. 2007 May;10(4):372-80.

Task demands interact with the single and combined effects of medication and contingencies on children with ADHD.

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  • 1Children's Hospital of Orange County and University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.



To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands.


Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a double-blind fashion) completed two tasks, a match-to-sample task and a stop-signal task, under three conditions (reward, response cost, and no contingency) in a counterbalanced order.


Contingencies and medication administered singly improved performance on both tasks. For the match-to-sample task, the combination of medication and contingencies was more efficacious than either alone. For the stop-signal task, the combination of medication and reward was no more effective than either alone; however, medication and response cost combined was more effective than either treatment alone.


Results suggest that both medication and contingencies improve task performance. The findings suggest that task demands interact with single and combined treatment effects.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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