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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Apr;54(2):309-33, viii-ix.

Health effects of mold in children.

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  • 1Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, 5201 California Avenue, Suite 100, Irvine, CA 92617, USA.


Mold is ubiquitous, and exposure to mold and its products of metabolism is unavoidable, whether indoors or outdoors. Mold can produce a variety of adverse health outcomes by four scientifically validated pathophysiologic mechanisms: hypersensitivity, toxicity, infection, and irritation. Some adverse health outcomes have been attributed to mold for which mechanisms of injury are not well defined or are implausible. This article discusses these adverse health outcomes, focusing predominantly on those for which valid associations have been established.

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