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FASEB J. 2007 Aug;21(10):2486-95. Epub 2007 Apr 13.

Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity by phosphorylation.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, 462 Heritage Medical Research Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2S2, Canada.


The regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) has been studied extensively due to the fundamental roles these zinc-endopeptidases play in diverse physiological and pathological processes. However, phosphorylation has not previously been considered as a potential modulator of MMP activity. The ubiquitously expressed MMP-2 contains 29 potential phosphorylation sites. Mass spectrometry reveals that at least five of these sites are phosphorylated in hrMMP-2 expressed in mammalian cells. Treatment of HT1080 cells with an activator of protein kinase C results in a change in MMP-2 immunoreactivity on 2D immunoblots consistent with phosphorylation, and purified MMP-2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C in vitro. Furthermore, MMP-2 from HT1080 cell-conditioned medium is immunoreactive with antibodies directed against phosphothreonine and phosphoserine, which suggests that it is phosphorylated. Analysis of MMP-2 activity by zymography, gelatin dequenching assays, and measurement of kinetic parameters shows that the phosphorylation status of MMP-2 significantly affects its enzymatic properties. Consistent with this, dephosphorylation of MMP-2 immunoprecipitated from HT1080 conditioned medium with alkaline phosphatase significantly increases its activity. We conclude that MMP-2 is modulated by phosphorylation on multiple sites and that protein kinase C may be a regulator of this protease in vivo.

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