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Aquat Toxicol. 2007 Jun 5;83(1):52-61. Epub 2007 Mar 18.

Toxicity of the booster biocide Sea-Nine to the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

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  • 1Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Vigo, Estrada Colexio Universitario s/n, 36310 Vigo, Galicia, Spain.


The toxicity of the alternative antifouling compound Sea-Nine to the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was investigated. The inhibition of the fertilization rate and the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring, measured as inhibition of embryonic development and larval growth, were studied by preexposure of gametes to a range of Sea-Nine concentrations. Sperm and egg exposures resulted in a significant decrease of the fertilization rate and induced a transmissible damage to the offspring. The effects of Sea-Nine throughout the embryonic development were also studied by a 48 h exposure of fertilized eggs. The larval growth was the most sensitive response tested, with toxic effects detected at 8.6 nM=2.4 microg/L (EC(10)). The inhibition of P. lividus embryonic development and larval growth was also used to study the loss of toxicity in Sea-Nine solutions exposed for 8h to direct sunlight and maintained for 28 h in dark conditions. The results showed that the toxicity of Sea-Nine solutions did not decrease but a slight increase in toxicity was observed in comparison with control solutions. The risk of Sea-Nine maximum concentrations measured in marinas around Europe to P. lividus early developmental stages was calculated and the obtained risk quotient was 5.5, indicating that adverse ecological effects of this compound are likely to occur.

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