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J Med Entomol. 2007 Mar;44(2):381-4.

Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 3. Evaluation of surveillance devices for the collection of adult sand flies.

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  • 1407th Air Expeditionary Group, United States Air Force, Tallil Air Base, Iraq.


We evaluated the effectiveness of commercially available light traps and sticky traps baited with chemical light sticks for the collection of phlebotomine sand flies. Evaluations were conducted at Tallil Air Base, Iraq, in 2003. In an initial study, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-style trap with UV bulb collected significantly more sand flies than did an up-draft CDC trap, a standard down-draft CDC trap (STD-CDC), or a sticky strap with a green chemical light stick. In a subsequent study, we found that the addition of chemical light sticks to sticky traps resulted in a significant increase in the number of sand flies collected compared with sticky traps without the light sticks. These data indicate that 1) the CDC light trap with an UV bulb is an effective alternative to the standard CDC light trap for collecting phlebotomine sand flies in Iraq, and 2) that the addition of a chemical light stick to a sticky trap can result in a field-expedient tool for the collection of sand flies.

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