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Rev Sci Instrum. 2007 Mar;78(3):033704.

X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program.

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  • 1Commissariat á l'Energie Atomique/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyères-Le-Châtel, France.


This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862] (24 kJ, UV-0.35 nm). The design includes a large target-to-microscope (400-700 mm) distance required by the x-ray ablation issues anticipated on the Laser MégaJoule facility [P. A. Holstein et al., Laser Part. Beams 17, 403 (1999)] (1.8 MJ) which is under construction. Two eight-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948)] with different spectral wavelength ranges and with a 400 mm source-to-mirror distance image the target on a custom-built framing camera (time resolution of approximately 80 ps). The soft x-ray version microscope is sensitive below 1 keV and its spatial resolution is better than 30 microm over a 2-mm-diam region. The hard x-ray version microscope has a 10 microm resolution over an 800-microm-diam region and is sensitive in the 1-5 keV energy range. Two other x-ray microscopes based on an association of toroidal/spherical surfaces (T/S microscopes) produce an image on a streak camera with a spatial resolution better than 30 microm over a 3 mm field of view in the direction of the camera slit. Both microscopes have been designed to have, respectively, a maximum sensitivity in the 0.1-1 and 1-5 keV energy range. We present the original design of these four microscopes and their test on a dc x-ray tube in the laboratory. The diagnostics were successfully used on LIL first experiments early in 2005. Results of soft x-ray imaging of a radiative jet during conical shaped laser interaction are shown.

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