Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 1;282(22):16502-10. Epub 2007 Apr 2.

GSK-3beta acts upstream of Fyn kinase in regulation of nuclear export and degradation of NF-E2 related factor 2.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates expression and coordinated induction of a battery of chemoprotective genes in response to oxidative and electrophilic stress. This leads to protection against oxidative stress and neoplastic diseases. Nuclear import and export of Nrf2 play a significant role in control of nuclear levels of Nrf2 and thus the expression of Nrf2 down-stream genes. Tyrosine kinase Fyn phosphorylates tyrosine 568 of Nrf2 that leads to the nuclear export of Nrf2. In this study, we investigated the upstream factor(s) in regulation of Fyn and Fyn-mediated nuclear export of Nrf2. The investigations shed light on a novel mechanism of Nrf2 regulation in response to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that GSK-3beta acts upstream of Fyn kinase in control of nuclear export of Nrf2. Chemical and short interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of GSK-3beta led to nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and transcriptional activation of the Nrf2 downstream gene nqo1. Chemical and short interfering RNA inhibition of GSK-3beta and Fyn individually and in combination revealed that both kinases follow the same pathway to regulate nuclear export of Nrf2. We further demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide phosphorylates tyrosine 216 of GSK-3beta. This leads to activation of GSK-3beta. The activated GSK-3beta phosphorylates Fyn at threonine residue(s). Phosphorylated Fyn accumulates in the nucleus and phosphorylates Nrf2 at tyrosine 568. This leads to nuclear export, ubiquitination, and degradation of Nrf2.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk