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Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Apr 11;588(2):224-30. Epub 2007 Feb 6.

Effect of temperature variation on the visible and near infrared spectra of wine and the consequences on the partial least square calibrations developed to measure chemical composition.

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  • 1The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia.


Many studies have reported the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to characterize wines or to predict wine chemical composition. However, little is known about the effect of variation in temperature on the NIR spectrum of wine and the subsequent effect on the performance of calibrations used to measure chemical composition. Several parameters influence the spectra of organic molecules in the NIR region, with temperature being one of the most important factors affecting the vibration intensity and frequency of molecular bonds. Wine is a complex mixture of chemical components (e.g. water, sugars, organic acids, and ethanol), and a simple ethanol and water model solution cannot be used to study the possible effects of temperature variations in the NIR spectrum of wine. Ten red and 10 white wines were scanned in triplicate at six different temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 45 degrees C and 50 degrees C) in the visible (vis) and NIR regions (400-2500 nm) in a monochromator instrument in transmission mode (1 mm path length). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression models were developed using full cross validation (leave-one-out). These models were used to interpret the spectra and to develop calibrations for alcohol, sugars (glucose+fructose) and pH at different temperatures. The results showed that differences in the spectra around 970 nm and 1400 nm, related to O-H bonding were observed for both varieties. Additionally an effect of temperature on the vis region of red wine spectra was observed. The standard error of cross validation (SECV) achieved for the PLS calibration models tended to inverse as the temperature increased. The practical implication of this study it is recommended that the temperature of scanning for wine analysis using a 1 mm path length cuvette should be between 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C.

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