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Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2007 Mar;4(1):33-8.

Nonpharmacologic therapy in heart failure: an overview.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Box 3356, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.


Heart failure therapy has seen significant changes over the past few decades. Therapies aimed at various pathophysiologic states have been and are currently used in the treatment of heart failure. Despite this, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Nonpharmacologic therapy plays a significant and life-saving role in certain subsets of patients. This review will discuss the current evidence and future direction of nonpharmacologic therapy as it pertains to surgical options, devices, and exercise.

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