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Int J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb;12(1):8-16. Epub 2007 Feb 25.

Organ motion in image-guided radiotherapy: lessons from real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy.

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  • 1Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North-15 West-7, Kita-ku, 060-8638 Sapporo, Japan.


External radiotherapy using imaging technology for patient setup is often called image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The most important problem to solve in IGRT is organ motion. Four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT), in which the accuracy of localization is improved - not only in space but also in time - in comparison to 3DRT, is required in IGRT. Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) has been shown to be feasible for performing 4DRT with the aid of a fiducial marker near the tumor. Lung, liver, prostate, spinal/paraspinal, gynecological, head and neck, esophagus, and pancreas tumors are now ready for dose escalation studies using RTRT.

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