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Subst Use Misuse. 2007;42(1):23-41.

Development and validation of transtheoretical model measures for Bulgarian adolescent non-smokers.

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  • 1Cancer Prevention Research Center, University of Rhode Island, Lincoln, Rhode Island 02865-4207, USA.


The goal of this study was to develop, translate, and evaluate measures for decisional balance and situational temptations for Bulgarian adolescent nonsmokers and to test the predicted relationships with stages of change. Students in the last grades of high school (15-19 years old) recruited in 12 randomly selected schools participated in the study. Data from the 369 nonsmokers (61.8% female, mean age 16.4 years, 97.1% Bulgarian) were used in the measurement development. A two-factor model for decisional balance (CFI=.94) and a hierarchical three-factor model for temptations (CFI=.90) demonstrated the best fit. The predicted crossover pattern for decisional balance and decreasing trend for temptations across the stages of change was verified. Both measures demonstrated tau-equivalent invariance across gender, in addition to good psychometric properties. These results, with the caveat of the noted limitations, support the cross-cultural validity of these transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs and indicate that they can be used as a basis for development of smoking prevention interventions.

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