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Am J Addict. 2007 Jan-Feb;16(1):32-7.

Cigarette smoking and long-term alcohol and drug treatment outcomes: a telephone follow-up at five years.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of California-San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


This prospective study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and five-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. Of 749 individuals who began private outpatient treatment, 598 (80%) were re-interviewed by telephone at five years. At five-year follow-up, 53% reported smoking cigarettes in the prior 30 days. Smokers were less likely to be abstinent from alcohol and drugs in the prior 30 days (48.3% vs. 64.0%), and had higher Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores in employment, alcohol, drug, psychiatric, and family/social problems; worse self-reported health; and greater self-reported depression. Findings inform understanding of long-term substance abuse treatment outcomes and potential service needs of smokers.

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