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Appl Neuropsychol. 2006;13(4):230-41.

Substantive validity of working memory measures in major cognitive functioning test batteries for children.

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  • 1Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.


Working memory scales of commonly used measures of cognitive functioning for children are evaluated for substantive validity by comparing processes needed for subtest performance to component processes in Baddeley's working memory model. Comprehensive measures of working memory need to assess phonological and visuospatial working memory as well as storage-retrieval and manipulation in both components. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WISCIV) working memory index and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities broad short-term memory factor do not assess visuospatial working memory. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition and WISCIV Integrated have potential for being comprehensive, substantively valid measures of working memory, but they need improvement and further investigation. It is imperative that solid, empirically based definitions of constructs serve as the foundation for comprehensive assessment when measures are used to form hypotheses and make decisions regarding a child's future.

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