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Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jan 5;98(1):010503. Epub 2007 Jan 5.

Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber.

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  • 1Applied Modern Physics, MS D454, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.


The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultralow-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite statistics without the use of Gaussian approximations in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to photon-number-splitting attacks and highly resistant to Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

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