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J Comput Chem. 2007 Jul 15;28(9):1485-502.

Interfacing Q-Chem and CHARMM to perform QM/MM reaction path calculations.

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  • 1National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


A hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential energy function with Hartree-Fock, density functional theory (DFT), and post-HF (RIMP2, MP2, CCSD) capability has been implemented in the CHARMM and Q-Chem software packages. In addition, we have modified CHARMM and Q-Chem to take advantage of the newly introduced replica path and the nudged elastic band methods, which are powerful techniques for studying reaction pathways in a highly parallel (i.e., parallel/parallel) fashion, with each pathway point being distributed to a different node of a large cluster. To test our implementation, a series of systems were studied and comparisons were made to both full QM calculations and previous QM/MM studies and experiments. For instance, the differences between HF, DFT, MP2, and CCSD QM/MM calculations of H2O...H2O, H2O...Na+, and H2O...Cl- complexes have been explored. Furthermore, the recently implemented polarizable Drude water model was used to make comparisons to the popular TIP3P and TIP4P water models for doing QM/MM calculations. We have also computed the energetic profile of the chorismate mutase catalyzed Claisen rearrangement at various QM/MM levels of theory and have compared the results with previous studies. Our best estimate for the activation energy is 8.20 kcal/mol and for the reaction energy is -23.1 kcal/mol, both calculated at the MP2/6-31+G(d)//MP2/6-31+G(d)/C22 level of theory.

Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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