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Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Apr;18(3):259-67. Epub 2007 Feb 14.

Psychological attitudes and risk of breast cancer in Japan: a prospective study.

Author information

  • 1Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan. wakai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between psychological factors and the risk of breast cancer prospectively in a non-Western population.

METHODS:

Data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study were analyzed. From 1988 to 1990, 34,497 women aged 40-79 years completed a questionnaire on medical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. The rate ratios (RRs) of their responses were computed by fitting to proportional hazards models.

RESULTS:

During the mean follow-up period of 7.5 years, 149 breast cancer cases were documented. Those individuals who possessed "ikigai" (Japanese term meaning something that made one's life worth living) showed a significantly lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.47-0.94). Those who perceived themselves as able to make decisions quickly also had a lower risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted RR=0.56; 95% CI=0.36-0.87). The other factors investigated, including ease of anger arousal and self-perceived stress of daily life were not associated with breast cancer risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although further studies will be necessary to verify these findings, our results suggest that having "ikigai" and being decisive decrease an individual's subsequent risk of breast cancer.

PMID:
17334812
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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