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Inflamm Res. 2007 Jan;56(1):1-10.

Toll-like receptor signalling and the clinical benefits that lie within.

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  • 1Centre for Functional Genomics and Human Disease, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.


TLRs are of crucial importance to the innate immune system by recognising molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules. The innate immune system works to defend the body from microbial infection by initiating inflammation, the extreme form of which is sepsis. The discovery that endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components, are recognised by TLRs, raise the possibility of these receptors and their associated adapter molecules, as potential targets for the development of agonists and antagonists for the treatment of various pathological diseases, and their manipulation as potential adjuvants in vaccine development. By elucidating the mechanisms of TLR signalling pathways involving adapter molecules like MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM combined with the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these receptors and the unique genes that are expressed upon recognition, will assist in the development of therapeutics to alleviate the consequences of microbial-mediated inflammation, which include inflammatory disorders and septic shock.

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