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Child Dev. 2007 Jan-Feb;78(1):70-95.

Income is not enough: incorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development.

Author information

  • 1School of Social Work, University of Michigan, 1080 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. liztg@umich.edu

Abstract

Although research has clearly established that low family income has negative impacts on children's cognitive skills and social-emotional competence, less often is a family's experience of material hardship considered. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (N=21,255), this study examined dual components of family income and material hardship along with parent mediators of stress, positive parenting, and investment as predictors of 6-year-old children's cognitive skills and social-emotional competence. Support was found for a model that identified unique parent-mediated paths from income to cognitive skills and from income and material hardship to social-emotional competence. The findings have implications for future study of family income and child development and for identification of promising targets for policy intervention.

PMID:
17328694
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2835994
Free PMC Article

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