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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Mar;88(3 Suppl 1):S18-21.

Industrial medicine and acute musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 4. Interventional procedures for work-related cervical spine conditions.

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  • 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. <>


This self-directed learning module outlines the use of interventional techniques in the treatment of neck pain with and without referred pain into the arm. It is part of the supplement on industrial rehabilitation medicine and acute musculoskeletal rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This article specifically focuses on interventions used to diagnose or treat the conditions commonly seen in patients with neck pain or referred pain into the upper limb. Techniques reviewed include the use of botulinum toxin injections in the treatment of myofascial pain, cervical zygapophyseal joint injections and radiofrequency neuroablation in the treatment of posterior column disorders, and epidural steroid injections in the treatment of cervical radicular and referred upper-limb pain.


To give an overview of the current state of the art regarding diagnostic and nonsurgical invasive treatment procedures for neck pain with and without referred upper-limb pain.

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