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J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007;21(1):63-70. Epub 2007 Feb 6.

Role of combined administration of Tiron and glutathione against aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

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  • 1Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, India.


The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of 4,5 dihydroxy benzene 1,3 disulfonic acid di sodium salt (Tiron) and glutathione (GSH) either individually or in combination against aluminum (Al)-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to aluminum chloride at a dose of 172.5mg/kg/d orally for 10 weeks. Tiron and GSH were administered at a dose of 471-mg/kg/d i.p. and 100mg/kg/d orally, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Tiron is a diphenolic chelating compound which forms water soluble complexes with a large number of metal ions. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded in brain and serum after Al exposure. Significant decrease was recorded in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and an increase was observed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in brain and serum. Most of the above parameters responded positively to individual therapy with Tiron, but more pronounced beneficial effects on the above-described parameters were observed when Tiron was administered in combination with GSH. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) studies also showed significantly high concentration of Al in brain and blood. Tiron was slightly more effective then GSH in reducing the concentration of Al from the brain and blood, however, no further improvement was recorded when Tiron was administered in combination with GSH in reducing the concentration of Al.

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