Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Neuropharmacology. 2007 Apr;52(5):1229-36. Epub 2007 Jan 14.

The neuromuscular activity of paradoxin: a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus).

Author information

  • 1Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.


The inland taipan is the world's most venomous snake. However, little is known about the neuromuscular activity of the venom or paradoxin (PDX), a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom. Venom (10microg/ml) and PDX (65nM) abolished indirect twitches of the chick biventer cervicis and mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations. The time to 90% inhibition by PDX was significantly increased by replacing Ca(2+) (2.5mM) in the physiological solution with Sr(2+) (10mM). In the biventer cervicis muscle, venom (10microg/ml), but not PDX (65nM), significantly inhibited responses to ACh (1mM) and carbachol (20microM), but not KCl (40mM). In the mouse diaphragm (low Ca(2+); room temperature), the inhibitory effect of PDX (6.5nM) was delayed and a transient increase (746+/-64%; n=5) of contractions observed. In intracellular recording experiments using the mouse hemidiaphragm, PDX (6.5-65nM) significantly increased quantal content and miniature endplate potential frequency prior to blocking evoked release of acetylcholine. In extracellular recording experiments using the mouse triangularis sterni, PDX (2.2-65nM) significantly inhibited the voltage-dependent K(+), but not Na(+), waveform. In patch clamp experiments using B82 mouse fibroblasts stably transfected with rKv 1.2, PDX (22nM; n=3) had no significant effect on currents evoked by 10mV step depolarisations from -60 to +20mV. PDX exhibits all the pharmacology associated with beta-neurotoxins, and appears to be one of the most potent, if not the most potent beta-neurotoxin yet discovered.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk