Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Blood. 1992 Jan 15;79(2):406-16.

Endotoxin enhances the expression of monocyte prothrombinase activity.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington 05405.

Abstract

Thrombin is generated on the surface of mononuclear cells (MNCs) through the assembly and function of the prothrombinase complex consisting of the enzyme factor Xa, the cofactor/factor Va, calcium ions, and an appropriate membrane surface for proper assembly of the protein constituents. Assays performed in the presence of factors Va and Xa indicated that endotoxin significantly enhanced the prothrombinase activity (1.5- to 2.5-fold; P less than .001) expressed by MNCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Monocytes present in the MNC suspensions were responsible for this increased activity through processes resulting in both enhanced cellular activity and the enhanced release of membranous vesicles. Endotoxin was without effect on the expression of lymphocyte prothrombinase activity. Scanning electron microscopy techniques indicated that endotoxin resulted in extensive membrane blebbing of the monocytes present in the MNC suspensions with no effect on the morphology of the lymphocytes. Within 5 hours, endotoxin maximally enhanced the prothrombinase activity expressed by the monocyte membrane surface 2.8-fold, whereas 8 hours was required to maximally enhance the activity associated with the released vesicles by twofold. The observed increase in activity expressed by the monocyte membrane surface was due solely to endotoxin, since the activity expressed by the unstimulated monocyte membrane surface remained unaltered over time. In contrast, cell vesiculation, which occurred in the absence of any stimulus, was further enhanced by endotoxin. The increase in activity associated with the released vesicles from both stimulated and unstimulated cells paralleled an increase in the vesicle number as determined by flow cytometric analyses. The vesicle released from both unstimulated and stimulated monocytes were indistinguishable in size as determined by image analysis and ranged between 0.05 and 0.3 microns in diameter. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) significantly enhanced the prothrombinase activity expressed by the monocyte membrane surface, as well as the released vesicle fraction, when used alone or in addition to endotoxin. The enhanced activity associated with the vesicle fraction again was attributed to the release of more vesicles. In contrast, cycloheximide decreased the prothrombinase activity expressed by the monocyte membrane surface, as well as the activity associated with vesicles released from both stimulated and unstimulated cells. These data suggest that the expression of monocyte prothrombinase activity can be significantly enhanced by endotoxin through processes that alter the monocyte membrane surface and augment the vesiculation process. Both processes appear to be regulated by protein synthesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent mechanisms.

PMID:
1730086
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk