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Chemosphere. 2007 Apr;67(9):S247-55. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

Human intake of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs in Japan, 2001 and 2002.

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  • 1Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki 210-0828, Japan.


PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs (dioxin) surveillance results derived from regular environmental monitoring as well as other dioxin surveys by national and local governmental bodies in Japan were collected and analyzed. Several thousand data for air and soil in fiscal year 2001 (from 01/04/2001 to 31/03/2002) and 2002, water (from the sea, rivers and lakes), sediment (from the sea, rivers and lakes), ground water, aquatic organisms, purified water from water purification plants, raw water from water purification plants, human breast milk, and human blood in fiscal 2001, and total diet study (TDS) and various kinds of foodstuff in fiscal 1998-2002 were collected. Average human uptake of dioxin in Japan in fiscal 2001 was estimated at 1.68 pg-TEQ/kg-bw/day, while uptake in fiscal 2002 was estimated at 1.52 pg-TEQ/kg-bw/day. Diet accounted for more than 90% of the total intake. Contributions of inhalation and soil ingestion were relatively small. Age-group-specific contribution of various foodstuff to total dietary intake was also estimated. The estimates of intake through fish and shellfish accounted for approximately 45-70% of total dietary intake in each age group. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted, using the data of the air and soil concentrations in fiscal 2001 and the total diet study data in fiscal 1998-2001, in order to obtain information on the variability of dioxin intake; The estimated average, median, 5th percentile and 95th percentile of the intake distribution were 1.78, 1.69, 0.95 and 2.91 pg-TEQ/kg-bw/day, respectively. This study found that the average total intake estimates in Japan in both fiscal 2001 and 2002 were estimated to be below tolerable daily intake level (TDI) defined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (i.e. 4 pg-TEQ/kg-bw/day). The 95th percentile of the dioxin intake distributions estimated with Monte Carlo simulation using the data of the air and soil concentrations in fiscal 2001 and TDS data in fiscal 1998-2001 was also below the Japanese TDI.

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