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Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007 Mar 15;116(1-2):59-68. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) increases nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activity in and interleukin-8 (IL-8) release from bovine mammary epithelial cells.

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  • 1UCD School of Agriculture, Food Science & Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.


Epithelia play important immunological roles at a variety of mucosal sites. We examined NFkappaB activity in control and TNF-alpha treated bovine mammary epithelial monolayers (BME-UV cells). A region of the bovine IL-8 (bIL-8) promoter was sequenced and a putative kappaB consensus sequence was identified bioinformatically. We used this sequence to analyse nuclear extracts for IL-8 specific NFkappaB activity. As a surrogate marker of NFkappaB activation, we investigated IL-8 release in two models. Firstly in BME-UV monolayers, IL-8 release in the presence of pro- and anti-inflammatory agents was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Secondly, we measured IL-8 secretion from a novel model of intact mucosal sheets of bovine teat sinus. IL-8 release into bathing solutions was assessed following treatment with pro- and anti-inflammatory agents. TNF-alpha enhanced NFkappaB activity in bovine mammary epithelial monolayers. p65 NFkappaB homodimer was identified in both control and TNF-alpha treated cells. Novel sequencing of the bovine IL-8 promoter identified a putative kappaB consensus sequence, which specifically bound TNF-alpha inducible p50/p65 heterodimer. TNF-alpha induced primarily serosal IL-8 release in the cell culture model. Pre-treatment with anti-TNF or dexamethasone inhibited TNF-alpha induced IL-8 release. High dose interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induced IL-8 release, however significantly less potently than TNF-alpha. Bovine mammary mucosal tissue released high basal levels of IL-8 which were unaffected by TNF-alpha or IL-1beta but inhibited by both dexamethasone and anti-TNF. These data support a role for TNF-alpha in activation of NFkappaB and release of IL-8 from bovine mammary epithelial cells.

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