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Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007 Jan;25(1):32-53.

[Recommendations from the GESIDA/Spanish AIDS Plan regarding antiretroviral treatment in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection (update January 2007)].

[Article in Spanish]



This consensus document is an update of antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommendations for adult patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1).


To formulate these recommendations, a panel composed of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA; AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS; Spanish AIDS Plan) reviewed the advances in the current understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV, the safety and efficacy findings from clinical trials, and the results from cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals or presented at scientific meetings over the last years. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the source of the data: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not recommend ART was established in each situation.


Currently, the treatment of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs of two different classes, including 2 nucleosides or nucleotide analogs (NRTI) plus 1 non-nucleoside (NNRTI) or 1 boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r). Initiation of ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4+ lymphocyte counts and plasma viral load, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4+ counts of < 200 cells/microl; 2) therapy should be started in most patients with CD4+ counts of 200-350 cells/microl, although it can be delayed when CD41 count persists at around 350 cells/microL and viral load is low, and 3) initiation of therapy can be delayed in patients with CD4+ counts of > 350 cells/microL. The initial objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. Adherence to therapy plays an essential role in maintaining the antiviral response. Therapeutic options are limited with the development of cross resistance and ART failure. Genotype studies are useful in these cases. More information regarding the studies analyzed and the panel recommendations for adherence, toxicity, treatment during pregnancy, patients with hepatitis B or C virus co-infection, and post-exposure prophylaxis can be accessed at www.gesida.seimc.org.


CD4+ lymphocyte count is the most important reference factor for initiating ART in asymptomatic patients. The large number of available drugs, the increased sensitivity of tests to monitor viral load, and the ability to determine viral resistance is leading to a more individualized approach to therapy.

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