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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;81(2):270-83.

Appropriate phenotyping procedures for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in humans and their simultaneous use in the "cocktail" approach.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.


Phenotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters is used to assess quantitatively the effect of an intervention (e.g., drug therapy, diet) or a condition (e.g., genetic polymorphism, disease) on their activity. Appropriate selection of test drug and metric is essential to obtain results applicable for other substrates of the respective enzyme/transporter. The following phenotyping metrics are recommended based on the level of validation and on practicability: CYP1A2, paraxanthine/caffeine in plasma 6 h after 150 mg caffeine; CYP2C9, tolbutamide plasma concentration 24 h after 125 mg tolbutamide; CYP2C19, urinary excretion of 4'-OH-mephenytoin 0-12 h after 50 mg mephenytoin; CYP2D6, urinary molar ratio debrisoquine/4-OH-debrisoquine 0-8 h after 10 mg debrisoquine; and CYP3A4, plasma clearance of midazolam after 2 mg midazolam (all drugs given orally).

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