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Masui. 2007 Jan;56(1):93-102.

[The state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan: an analysis of the Japanese society of anesthesiologists survey of critical incidents in the operating room].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) survey of critical incidents in the operating room and other reports have shown that pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia are at an increased risk. Purpose was to examine the state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan. This might clarify the role of children's hospitals for pediatric anesthesia, and the relationship between critical incidents and volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures.

METHODS:

The JSA has conducted annual surveys of critical incidents in the operating room by sending to and collecting confidential questionnaires from all JSA Certified Training Hospitals. From 1999 to 2003, 342,840 pediatric (0-5 yr) anesthetic procedures were registered. During this period, only 15 cardiac arrests and 3 deaths within 7 postoperative days totally attributable to anesthetic management were reported. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac arrests and deaths due to all etiologies. The hospitals were classified as children's hospitals, university hospitals, and other hospitals, and the incidence of cardiac arrest, the recovery rate from cardiac arrest without any sequelae, and the mortality rate were compared according to types of the hospitals. The relationship between death due to intraoperative critical incidents and the volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures was examined using data from the 2003 survey, the recovery rate of which was 85.7%. In 2003, 739 JSA Certified Training Hospitals responded to the survey: 7 children's hospitals, 109 university hospitals, and 623 other hospitals. Among these hospitals, 707 and 270 hospitals conducted pediatric and newborn (<1 mo) anesthesia, respectively. In 2003, 4,630 newborn, 17,890 infant (<1 yr), and 60,524 child (1-5 yr) anesthetic procedures were registered. Odds ratios were determined to compare the risks among the hospital groups, and the 95% confidential interval (CI) was shown. The Chi square test was used to compare the background of patients with cardiac arrest. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.

RESULTS:

In 2003, 95.7% and 36.5% of JSA Certified Training Hospitals which responded to the survey had conducted pediatric and newborn anesthesia, respectively. Children's hospitals, university hospitals, and other hospitals were responsible for 10.7%, 31.0%, and 58.3% of pediatric anesthetic procedures, respectively. Seven children's hospitals (100.0%), 54 university hospitals (50.5%), and 54 other hospitals (9.1%) conducted more than 201 annual pediatric anesthetic procedures, respectively, and these 115 hospitals conducted 62.5% of all pediatric anesthetic procedures in Japan. There was no significant difference between the overall mortality rate in hospitals with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of less than 200 and that in hospitals with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of more than 201 (5.46 versus 7.12/10,000 anesthetic procedures). However, the overall mortality rate was 4.87 times higher (95% confidential interval: 1.53-15.66) in hospitals with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of more than 101 (7.91/10,000 anesthetic procedures) than in those with an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of less than 100 (1.62/10,000 anesthetic procedures). The situation was quite different when we focused on newborn anesthetic procedures : the overall mortality was 2.63 times higher (95% confidential interval : 1.19-5.84) in hospitals with an annual newborn anesthetic volume of less than 12 (126.6/ 10,000 anesthetic procedures) than those with an annual newborn anesthetic volume of more than 13 (48.5/10,000 anesthetic procedures). Between 1999 and 2003, the incidences of cardiac arrest in children's hospitals, university hospitals, and other hospitals were 9.54 (1.89 times higher than the other hospitals; CI 1.31-2.67), 10.30, and 5.11/10,000 anesthetic procedures, respectively. Among the children who developed cardiac arrest, the ratio of poor preoperative conditions with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification of more than 3 was significantly lower in the children's hospitals (68.9%) than the university hospitals (84.3%) and the other hospitals (84.0%). The recovery rate from cardiac arrest was 51.1% (2.49 times higher than the university hospitals; CI 1.23-5.06, and 3.05 times higher than the other hospitals ; CI 1.45-6.43), 29.6%, and 25.5%, respectively. The mortality rate was 9.54 (1.77 times higher than the other hospitals; CI 1.25-2.52), 8.87, and 5.38/10,000 anesthetic procedures in children's hospitals, university hospitals and other hospitals, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Almost all JSA Certified Training Hospitals conducted pediatric anesthesia, although only 15.6% of them had an annual pediatric anesthetic volume of more than 200. It was suggested that general pediatric anesthesia was conduced safely in JSA Certified Training Hospitals, even if they had a low annual pediatric anesthetic volume. The exception was newborn anesthetic procedures : the mortality was high in hospitals with an annual newborn anesthetic volume of less than 12. Analysis of critical incidents in the operating room failed to show the superiority of children's hospitals in comparison with the university hospitals and other hospitals. Collecting and analyzing data including the patients without critical incidents are required for further analysis.

PMID:
17243654
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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