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Hypertension. 2007 Mar;49(3):511-8. Epub 2007 Jan 22.

Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats with heart failure: role of nuclear factor kappaB.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Abstract

We investigated the role of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the cytokine-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), a critical cardiovascular and autonomic center, in rats with heart failure (HF). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent coronary artery ligation to induce HF or sham surgery. HF rats were treated orally for 6 weeks with vehicle (tap water), the NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (150 mg/kg per day), or the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone (30 mg/kg per day), which has been shown to reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines in this model. Compared with sham surgery, HF rats had higher (P<0.05) levels of aldosterone, interleukin-1beta and norepinephrine in plasma and prostaglandin E2 in cerebrospinal fluid. In the PVN, NF-kappaB p50 precursor p105 mRNA increased, and mRNA for its inhibitor, IkappaB, decreased (P<0.05). Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein expression was increased in perivascular cells of the PVN. Both pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and eplerenone reduced (P<0.05) p105 mRNA and increased IkappaB mRNA in PVN. Both also reduced (P<0.05) cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein expression in PVN, cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2, and plasma norepinephrine. Eplerenone, but not pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, reduced plasma interleukin-1beta. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and eplerenone had no effect on plasma aldosterone. The results suggest that activation of NF-kappaB is an intermediary step in cytokine-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in the PVN of HF rats. By enhancing access of prostaglandin E2 to hypothalamic neurons, this mechanism may contribute to augmented sympathetic nerve activity in HF.

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