Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):447-52.

High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.


In utero or early-life vitamin D deficiency is associated with skeletal problems, type 1 diabetes, and schizophrenia, but the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in U.S. pregnant women is unexplored. We sought to assess vitamin D status of pregnant women and their neonates residing in Pittsburgh by race and season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 4-21 wk gestation and predelivery in 200 white and 200 black pregnant women and in cord blood of their neonates. Over 90% of women used prenatal vitamins. Women and neonates were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D<37.5 nmol/L], insufficient [25(OH)D 37.5-80 nmol/L], or sufficient [25(OH)D>80 nmol/L]. At delivery, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency occurred in 29.2% and 54.1% of black women and 45.6% and 46.8% black neonates, respectively. Five percent and 42.1% of white women and 9.7% and 56.4% of white neonates were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, respectively. Results were similar at <22 wk gestation. After adjustment for prepregnancy BMI and periconceptional multivitamin use, black women had a smaller mean increase in maternal 25(OH)D compared with white women from winter to summer (16.0+/-3.3 nmol/L vs. 23.2+/-3.7 nmol/L) and from spring to summer (13.2+/-3.0 nmol/L vs. 27.6+/-4.7 nmol/L) (P<0.01). These results suggest that black and white pregnant women and neonates residing in the northern US are at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency, even when mothers are compliant with prenatal vitamins. Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk