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J Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15;195(4):562-71. Epub 2007 Jan 8.

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 up-regulation after simian immunodeficiency virus-1 coinfection in the nonhuman primate.

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  • 1Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA. vtraina@tulane.edu

Abstract

The effects that human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) coinfection have on HTLV-1 dynamics and disease progression were tested in a nonhuman primate model. Seven rhesus macaques were experimentally inoculated with HTLV-1, and a persistent infection was established. Coinfection with SIV/smB670 resulted in increased HTLV-1 p19 antigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HTLV-1 proviral loads. Circulating CD2(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased over preinoculation levels, along with a progressive decrease in CD4(+) T cells, typical for terminal SIV disease. Finally documented was the striking emergence of up to 19% of HTLV-associated "flower cell" lymphocytes in the circulation, as seen in patients with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. CD8(+)CD25(+) T cell subpopulation increases were positively correlated with flower cell appearance and suggested their possible role in this process. We conclude that SIV may have the potential to up-regulate HTLV-1 and disease expression.

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