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Am Psychol. 2007 Jan;62(1):34-42; discussion 43-7.

A systems model of leadership: WICS.

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  • 1School of arts and Sciences, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA.


This article reviews a systems model of leadership. According to the model, effective leadership is a synthesis of wisdom, creativity, and intelligence (WICS). It is in large part a decision about how to marshal and deploy these resources. One needs creativity to generate ideas, academic (analytical) intelligence to evaluate whether the ideas are good, practical intelligence to implement the ideas and persuade others of their worth, and wisdom to balance the interests of all stakeholders and to ensure that the actions of the leader seek a common good. The article relates the current model to other extant models of leadership.

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