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Chromosome Res. 2006;14(8):899-907. Epub 2007 Jan 19.

Reconstruction of the ancestral ferungulate karyotype by electronic chromosome painting (E-painting).

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  • 1Institute of Human Genetics, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89070 Ulm, Germany.


By comparing high-coverage and high-quality whole genome sequence assemblies it is now possible to reconstruct putative ancestral progenitor karyotypes, here called protokaryotypes. For this study we used the recently described electronic chromosome painting technique (E-painting) to reconstruct the karyotype of the 85 million-year-old (MYA) ferungulate ancestor. This model is primarily based on dog (Canis familiaris) and cattle (Bos taurus) genome data and is highly consistent with comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting data. The protokaryotype bears 23 autosomal chromosome pairs and the sex chromosomes and preserves most of the chromosomal associations described previously for the boreo-eutherian protokaryotype. The model indicates that five interchromosomal rearrangements occurred during the transition from the boreo-eutherian to the ferungulate ancestor. From there on 66 further interchromosomal rearrangements took place in the lineage leading to cattle and 61 further interchromosomal rearrangements in the lineage to dog.

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