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Brain Res. 2007 Feb 9;1132(1):193-202. Epub 2006 Dec 26.

Cell death in rat cerebellar granule neurons induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro: mechanisms and protection by adenosine receptor ligands.

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  • 1Division of Neuroscience and Biomedical Systems, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, West Medical Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK.


Oxidative stress, resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a pathological state that causes profound cellular damage and eventual death resulting from the overactivation of glutamate receptors, and the generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). As such, H(2)O(2) represents an important model for studying the neuropathology of oxidative stress in a variety of CNS disorders. The effects of H(2)O(2) on the viability of post-natal cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), the nature of the cell death involved and the potential protection by adenosine receptors against the damage were examined in the current study. Hydrogen peroxide (10-400 microM) reduced CGN viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The addition of catalase (100 U/ml) prevented this effect, and the non-specific COX inhibitor aspirin (1 mM) also alleviated the damage. A combination of H(2)O(2) (5 microM) and Cu(2+) (0.5 mM) resulted in a significant damage that was not prevented by the hydroxyl radical scavenger mannitol (50 mM). The permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporin A, the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk (40 microM) and the PARP-1 inhibitor DPQ (10 microM) each significantly protected against peroxide damage. While the A(1) adenosine receptor agonist CPA and the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM241385 (each at 100 nM) elicited protection, the A(1) adenosine receptor blocker DPCPX and the A(2A) receptor agonist CGS21680 (each at 100 nM) showed no effect. The data demonstrate that H(2)O(2) induced oxidative stress in CGNs, involving both apoptotic and necrotic death, and this can be ameliorated by A(1) receptor activation or A(2A) receptor blockade.

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