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Br J Nutr. 2006 Dec;96(6):1116-24.

Plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration and its relationship to intake in British adults aged 19-64 years.

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  • 1MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK.


Plasma phylloquinone (vitamin K1) concentration from non-fasted blood samples was examined by season, smoking status, socio-demographic factors and phylloquinone intake in a nationally representative sample of 1154 British individuals aged 19-64 years from the 2000-1 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Geometric mean plasma phylloquinone concentration was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88, 1.00) nmol/l, with 95% of values in the range 0.10-8.72 nmol/l. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations of 530 men were significantly higher than those of 624 women (1.13 (95% CI 1.04, 1.22) v. 0.81 (95% CI 0.74, 0.88) nmol/l; P<0.001), independent of other factors. Women aged 19-34 years had significantly lower plasma phylloquinone concentration than their older counterparts. Women were also found to have lower plasma phylloquinone concentrations during summer compared with winter and spring (each P<0.01). In contrast, plasma phylloquinone concentration in men did not vary significantly by season or any of the socio-demographic or lifestyle factors. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations were positively correlated with phylloquinone intake in men and women (r 0.26 and 0.32 respectively; each P<0.001). Overall, forward stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variation in plasma phylloquinone concentration was explained by phylloquinone intake, with a further 10% of its variation explained by plasma concentrations of gamma-tocopherol (6%) and retinyl palmitate (4%). After adjustment for age and corresponding nutrient intakes, plasma phylloquinone concentration was significantly associated (each P<0.01) with plasma concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, retinyl palmitate, beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in men and women.

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