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Anticancer Drugs. 2007 Jan;18(1):65-78.

15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 enhances docetaxel anti-tumor activity against A549 and H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenograft tumors.

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  • 1College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee FL 32307, USA.


15-Deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 is a naturally occurring endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. The current study was aimed to determine the mechanism of anti-proliferative effect of 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2+docetaxel against A549 and H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenograft tumors. In-vitro cytotoxicity of 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 alone and in combination with docetaxel was studied against A549 and H460 cell lines. For in-vivo studies, female athymic nu/nu mice were xenografted with A549 and H460 tumors and treated with 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 (1 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneal), docetaxel (10 mg/kg; intravenous on days 14, 18 and 22) and 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2+docetaxel. Apoptosis was measured in A549 cells and tumor tissues, following various treatments. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, caspases, Bcl2 and p53 family proteins or their mRNA expressions were measured by Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction in A549 tumors. A possible role of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-independent mechanism was studied in A549 cells treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma antagonist, GW9662. Isobolographic analysis demonstrated synergistic interaction (combination index <1.0) between 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 and docetaxel against A549 and H460 cells in vitro. 15-Deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2+docetaxel significantly reduced the tumor volume compared with control (P<0.05), 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 (P<0.05) and docetaxel (P<0.05, P<0.01) in both A549 and H460 tumors. 15-Deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2+docetaxel showed a significant increase in apoptosis associated with inhibition of the Bcl2 and cyclin D1 expression and overexpression of caspase and p53 pathway genes. Further, enhanced expression of caspase 3 and inhibition of cyclin D1 by 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2+docetaxel was not reversed by GW9662, thus suggesting a possible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-independent mechanism. In conclusion, 15-deoxy-Delta-prostaglandin J2 enhanced the anti-tumor action of docetaxel by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent and -independent mechanisms mediated by induction of apoptosis.

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