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Phys Rev Lett. 2006 Oct 6;97(14):147001. Epub 2006 Oct 3.

Ubiquitous V-shape density of states in a mixed state of clean limit type II superconductors.

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  • 1Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.


It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the low energy density of states N(E) is described by a singular V-shape form N(E)=N(0)(H)+alpha|E|+O(E2) for all clean superconductors in a vortex state, irrespective of the underlying gap structure. The linear term alpha|E| which has not been recognized so far is obtained by exactly evaluating the vortex contribution. Based on microscopic Eilenberger theory N(E) is evaluated for the isotropic gap, line, and point-node gaps to yield a V-shape N(E). Scanning tunneling spectroscopy-STM experiments on NbSe2 and YNi2B2C give direct evidence for this. We provide arguments on the significance of this finding and on the relevance to other experiments.

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