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Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jun;28(6):1188-96. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Chemopreventive anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and other phytochemicals mediated by MAP kinase phosphatase-5 in prostate cells.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5118, USA.


As inflammation emerges as a risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa), there is potential for chemoprevention by anti-inflammatory agents. Dietary phytochemicals have been shown to have chemopreventive properties which may include anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we demonstrate a role for mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-5 (MKP5) in mediating anti-inflammatory activities of the phytochemicals curcumin, resveratrol and [6]-gingerol. We utilized the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL)-1beta to increase p38-dependent nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB) activation and expression of pro-inflammatory genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6 and IL-8 in normal prostatic epithelial cells. MKP5 over-expression decreased cytokine-induced NFkappaB activation, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-8 in normal prostatic epithelial cells, suggesting potent anti-inflammatory activity of MKP5. Pretreatment of cells with a p38 inhibitor mimicked the results observed with MKP5 over-expression, further implicating p38 inhibition as the main activity of MKP5. Curcumin, the phytochemical found in turmeric, up-regulated MKP5, subsequently decreasing cytokine-induced p38-dependent pro-inflammatory changes in normal prostatic epithelial cells. Resveratrol and [6]-gingerol, phytochemicals present in red wine and ginger, respectively, also up-regulated MKP5 in normal prostate epithelial cells. Moreover, we found that PCa cell lines DU 145, PC-3, LNCaP and LAPC-4 retained the ability to up-regulate MKP5 following curcumin, resveratrol and [6]-gingerol exposure, suggesting utility of these phytochemicals in PCa treatment. In summary, our findings show direct anti-inflammatory activity of MKP5 in prostate cells and suggest that up-regulation of MKP5 by phytochemicals may contribute to their chemopreventive actions by decreasing prostatic inflammation.

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