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Am J Vet Res. 2006 Dec;67(12):1974-9.

Comparison of measurements obtained by use of an electrogoniometer and a universal plastic goniometer for the assessment of joint motion in dogs.

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  • 1Comparative Orthopedics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.



To compare measurements obtained by use of a universal plastic goniometer (UG) and an electrogoniometer (EG) and from radiographs and to compare joint motion in German Shepherd Dogs and Labrador Retrievers.


12 healthy adult German Shepherd Dogs and data previously collected from 16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.


German Shepherd Dogs were sedated. One investigator then measured motion of the carpal, cubital (elbow), shoulder, tarsal, stifle, and hip joints of the sedated dogs. Measurements were made in triplicate with a UG and an EG. Radiographs were taken of all joints in maximal flexion and extension. Values were compared between the UG and EG and with values previously determined for joints of 16 Labrador Retrievers.


An EG had higher variability than a UG for all dogs. The EG variability appeared to result from the technique for the EG. German Shepherd Dogs had lower values in flexion and extension than did Labrador Retrievers for all joints, except the carpal joints. German Shepherd Dogs had less motion in the tarsal joints, compared with motion for the Labrador Retrievers, but had similar motion in all other joints.


A UG is reliable for obtaining measurements in German Shepherd Dogs. There was higher variability for the EG than for the UG, and an EG cannot be recommended for use.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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