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Orthop Clin North Am. 2006 Oct;37(4):531-9.

Upper extremity: emphasis on frozen shoulder.

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  • 1Women's Sports Medicine Center, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.


Adhesive capsulitis, or frozen shoulder syndrome, is a condition characterized by gradual loss of active and passive glenohumeral motion. The etiology of adhesive capsulitis is unknown. Treatment methods include supervised benign neglect, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, closed manipulation under anesthesia, arthroscopic capsular release, and open surgical release. Approximately 70% of patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis are women; however, the role of sex in the etiology, development, and outcome of treatment for adhesive capsulitis remains unclear. Individualized treatment is necessary following thorough evaluation of patient symptoms and stage of the disease.

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