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J Contam Hydrol. 2007 Mar 20;90(3-4):221-39. Epub 2006 Nov 30.

Quantification of potassium permanganate consumption and PCE oxidation in subsurface materials.

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  • 1Institute of Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Building 115, Bygningstorvet, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. jih@er.dtu.dk


A series of laboratory scale batch slurry experiments were conducted in order to establish a data set for oxidant demand by sandy and clayey subsurface materials as well as to identify the reaction kinetic rates of permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) consumption and PCE oxidation as a function of the MnO(4)(-) concentration. The laboratory experiments were carried out with 31 sandy and clayey subsurface sediments from 12 Danish sites. The results show that the consumption of MnO(4)(-) by reaction with the sediment, termed the natural oxidant demand (NOD), is the primary reaction with regards to quantification of MnO(4)(-) consumption. Dissolved PCE in concentrations up to 100 mg/l in the sediments investigated is not a significant factor in the total MnO(4)(-) consumption. Consumption of MnO(4)(-) increases with an increasing initial MnO(4)(-) concentration. The sediment type is also important as NOD is (generally) higher in clayey than in sandy sediments for a given MnO(4)(-) concentration. For the different sediment types the typical NOD values are 0.5-2 g MnO(4)(-)/kg dry weight (dw) for glacial meltwater sand, 1-8 g MnO(4)(-)/kg dw for sandy till and 5-20 g MnO(4)(-)/kg dw for clayey till. The long term consumption of MnO(4)(-) and oxidation of PCE can not be described with a single rate constant, as the total MnO(4)(-) reduction is comprised of several different reactions with individual rates. During the initial hours of reaction, first order kinetics can be applied, where the short term first order rate constants for consumption of MnO(4)(-) and oxidation of PCE are 0.05-0.5 h(-1) and 0.5-4.5 h(-1), respectively. The sediment does not act as an instantaneous sink for MnO(4)(-). The consumption of MnO(4)(-) by reaction with the reactive species in the sediment is the result of several parallel reactions, during which the reaction between the contaminant and MnO(4)(-) also takes place. Hence, application of low MnO(4)(-) concentrations can cause partly oxidation of PCE, as the oxidant demand of the sediment does not need to be met fully before PCE is oxidised.

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