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Res Social Adm Pharm. 2006 Sep;2(3):299-314.

Prediction of pharmacist intention to provide Medicare medication therapy management services using the theory of planned behavior.

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  • 1University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, IA 52242-1112, USA.



Medicare Part D is a voluntary prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. As part of the coverage, medication therapy management services (MTMS) are mandated for beneficiaries with chronic diseases who take multiple medications covered under part D and who are likely to incur annual costs that exceed a specified level.


To predict the behavioral intention of pharmacists to provide Medicare medication therapy management services (MTMS) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and to determine the relationship between pharmacists' characteristics and intention to provide MTMS.


The population for this cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of all community pharmacists in Iowa. Data collection occurred through a self-administered anonymous mail survey. Two surveys each were mailed to 500 pharmacies selected through a stratified random sample, 1 survey for the pharmacy manager and 1 survey for a staff pharmacist if applicable. Descriptive statistics and scale reliability were calculated for each of the 4 TPB scales (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention). Linear regression was used to predict intent as a function of the other 3 TPB factors, demographic factors, experience, and type of pharmacy.


Out of 212 surveys received, 203 had usable data. The usable response rate ranged from 21% to 41%. Pharmacists' intent to provide MTMS was generally positive but varied in strength with a mean score of 22.47 (+/-4.00) and a range of 7-30. Pharmacists mostly agreed that they had appropriate training to provide MTMS but lacked time and support. The linear regression analysis found the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to be significant predictors of intent (P<.05). Pharmacists with stronger intent to provide MTMS were those who felt they had more control over providing MTMS, felt their peers approved of the provision of MTMS, and had a positive attitude about providing MTMS. Type of pharmacy and pharmacist demographic variables were not significant predictors of intent to provide MTMS.


Pharmacists showed generally positive intent to provide MTMS. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and attitude were significant predictors of intent (P<.05). Strategies to help pharmacists provide MTMS should focus on finding time and support to provide MTMS rather than individual educational needs.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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