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J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2007 Feb;35(1):125-36.

Examining subtypes of behavior problems among 3-year-old children, Part III: investigating differences in parenting practices and parenting stress.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Tobin Hall, 135 Hicks Way, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.


This study examined parenting of mothers and fathers of 3-year-old children who were classified as hyperactive (HYP), hyperactive and oppositional defiant (HYP/OD), and non-problem based on mothers' reports of behavior. Parents of children with HYP/OD were less warm, showed more negative affect, and more laxness than parents of non-problem children; however, contrary to prediction, they did not differ significantly from parents of children in the HYP group. Compared to mothers of non-problem children, mothers of children in the HYP/OD group reported significantly more parenting stress across all domains, whereas mothers of children in the HYP group only reported elevated levels of stress associated with having a difficult child. Theoretical and treatment implications are discussed.

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