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Histol Histopathol. 2007 Jan;22(1):15-21.

Phthalate esters immunolocalized in the gastrointestinal tract of shi drum Umbrina cirrosa (L.) and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (W.).

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  • 1Department of Comparative Morphology and Biochemistry, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.


The occurrence of phthalate esters in freshwater and marine aquacultural species like rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and shi drum Umbrina cirrosa, respectively, were determined by immunohistochemical approach. The results showed a similar distribution in the gastrointestinal tract of both species. In particular, intense immunoreactivity was found at gastric gland level. In the intestinal tract, goblet cells failed to stain, whereas enterocytes showed the highest binding of phthalates restricted to the apical cytoplasm. This distribution of phthalate esters at gastric gland and enterocyte level may have implications for the physiology of the digestive process and intestinal biotransformation. Phthalates are confirmed to be widely diffused contaminants, absorbed via the alimentary canal; thus a multidisciplinary approach could be useful to examine sea and freshwater environments.

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